Napsal (») 20. 3. 2007 v kategorii man linux, přečteno: 469×
LS(1) User Commands LS(1)


ls - list directory contents

ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

-a, --all
do not hide entries starting with .

-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

print the author of each file

-b, --escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

use SIZE-byte blocks

-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name
otherwise: sort by ctime

-C list entries by columns

control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN
may be "never", "always", or "auto"

-d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not derefer-
ence symbolic links

-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs" dired mode

-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l --time-style=full-iso

-g like -l, but do not list owner

-G, --no-group
inhibit display of group information

-h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow each command line symbolic link

that points to a directory

--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

-i, --inode
print index number of each file

-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k like --block-size=1K

-l use a long listing format

-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
tion for the file the link references rather than for the link

-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs

-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don"t treat e.g. control characters spe-

-o like -l, but do not list group information

-p, --file-type
append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is
"ls" and output is a terminal)

-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
shell-always, c, escape

-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, --size
print size of each file, in blocks

-S sort by file size

extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v

status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access,
use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if

show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale,

FORMAT is interpreted like "date"; if FORMAT is FORMAT1 line>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to
recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with "posix-", STYLE takes
effect only outside the POSIX locale

-t sort by modification time

-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access
time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

-U do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v sort by version

-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

-x list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

-1 list one file per line

--help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol-
lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
P, E, Z, Y.

By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is
equivalent to using --color=none. Using the --color option without the
optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always. With
--color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is con-
nected to a terminal (tty).


Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

Report bugs to .


Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is


The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com-

info coreutils ls

should give you access to the complete manual.

ls (coreutils) 5.2.1 July 2004 LS(1)
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