ls

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LS(1) User Commands LS(1)






NAME

ls - list directory contents


SYNOPSIS
ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


DESCRIPTION

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.


Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
too.


-a, --all
do not hide entries starting with .


-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..


--author
print the author of each file


-b, --escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters


--block-size=SIZE
use SIZE-byte blocks


-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~


-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name
otherwise: sort by ctime


-C list entries by columns


--color[=WHEN]
control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN
may be "never", "always", or "auto"


-d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not derefer-
ence symbolic links


-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs" dired mode


-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst


-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries


--format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C


--full-time
like -l --time-style=full-iso


-g like -l, but do not list owner


-G, --no-group
inhibit display of group information


-h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)


--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024


-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line


--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic link


that points to a directory


--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)


-i, --inode
print index number of each file


-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN


-k like --block-size=1K


-l use a long listing format


-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
tion for the file the link references rather than for the link
itself


-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries


-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs


-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don"t treat e.g. control characters spe-
cially)


-o like -l, but do not list group information


-p, --file-type
append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries


-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters


--show-control-chars
show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is
"ls" and output is a terminal)


-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes


--quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
shell-always, c, escape


-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting


-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively


-s, --size
print size of each file, in blocks


-S sort by file size


--sort=WORD
extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v


status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u


--time=WORD
show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access,
use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if
--sort=time


--time-style=STYLE
show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale,
+FORMAT


FORMAT is interpreted like "date"; if FORMAT is FORMAT1 line>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to
recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with "posix-", STYLE takes
effect only outside the POSIX locale


-t sort by modification time


-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8


-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access
time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time


-U do not sort; list entries in directory order


-v sort by version


-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value


-x list entries by lines instead of by columns


-X sort alphabetically by entry extension


-1 list one file per line


--help display this help and exit


--version
output version information and exit


SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol-
lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
P, E, Z, Y.


By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is
equivalent to using --color=none. Using the --color option without the
optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always. With
--color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is con-
nected to a terminal (tty).


AUTHOR

Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.


REPORTING BUGS
Report bugs to .


COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is
NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.



SEE ALSO

The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com-
mand


info coreutils ls


should give you access to the complete manual.






ls (coreutils) 5.2.1 July 2004 LS(1)
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